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    Noding and building a polygon from single, overlapping linestrings
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    ST_VertexN / ST_PointN - Extracting a specific point from any geometry
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    CASE Statements and SDO_GEOMETRY
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    Free Union, Intersection, Xor and Difference Functions for Oracle Locator - Part 2
    Free Union, Intersection, Xor and Difference Functions for Oracle Locator - Part 1
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    Calling the Oracle Spatial shapefile loader from within the Oracle database itself
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    Tips and Tricks

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All Blog Articles, Data Models and Free Source Code by Simon Greener, The SpatialDB Advisor is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Implementing SDO_AddPoint/ST_AddPoint for Oracle

Monday February 16 2009 at 07:37

As I indicated in my article on SDO_SetPoint PostGIS has a ST_SetPoint function that can be used to “Replace(s) point N of linestring with given point”. (And that IBM’s spatial database products have the SE_VertexUpdate() functions.)

PostGIS also has the ST_AddPoint function that “Adds a point to a LineString before point “. The IBM Spatial Data Blade function is SE_VertexAppend (ST_LineString,ST_Point) which “appends a vertex to the end of an ST_LineString”. Because there is no such function in Oracle so I thought I would implement one along the lines of the PostGIS function in my free GEOM PL/SQL package.

Here are the relevant headers:

  /** ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  * function   : SDO_AddPoint
  * precis     : Adds a point to a MultiPoint, LineString or MultiLineString geometry before point <p_position> (1-based index: Set to -1/NULL for appending.
  * version    : 1.0
  * usage      : FUNCTION SDO_AddPoint(p_geometry   in mdsys.sdo_geometry,
  *                                     p_point      in mdsys.vertex_type,
  *                                     p_position   in number )
  *                 RETURN mdsys.sdo_geometry DETERMINISTIC;
  * param      : p_geometry  : Original geometry
  * paramtype  : p_geometry  : mdsys.sdo_geometry
  * param      : p_point     : Actual point coordinates to be inserted
  * paramtype  : p_area      : number
  * param      : p_position  : Position before which point is inserted. If NULL or -1 the point is appended to whole geometry.
  * paramType  : p_position  : Number
  * return     : input geometry with new point added.
  * returnType : mdsys.sdo_geometry
  * history    : Simon Greener - February 2009 - Original coding.
  * copyright  : Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Australia License. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/au/)
  **/
  Function SDO_AddPoint(p_geometry   IN MDSYS.SDO_Geometry,
                        p_point      IN MDSYS.Vertex_Type,
                        p_position   IN Number )
    Return MDSYS.SDO_Geometry Deterministic;

   /* ST_* Wrappers */
  Function ST_AddPoint(p_geometry   IN MDSYS.St_Geometry,
                       p_point      IN MDSYS.ST_Point,
                       p_position   IN Number )
    Return MDSYS.ST_Geometry Deterministic;

Here is the main body of the functions.

  — Adds a point to a MultiPoint, LineString or MultiLinestring geometry before point  (1-based index: Set to -1/NULL for appending.
  Function SDO_AddPoint(p_geometry   IN MDSYS.SDO_Geometry,
                        p_point      IN MDSYS.Vertex_Type,
                        p_position   IN Number )
    Return MDSYS.SDO_Geometry
  Is
    v_elem_info      mdsys.sdo_elem_info_array;
    v_ordinates      MDSYS.SDO_Ordinate_Array;
    v_dims           Number;
    NULL_GEOMETRY    EXCEPTION;
    NOT_A_LINESTRING EXCEPTION;
    IS_COMPOUND      EXCEPTION;
    NULL_POINT       EXCEPTION;
  Begin
    If ( p_geometry is null ) Then
      Raise NULL_GEOMETRY;
    ElsIf ( Mod(p_geometry.sdo_gtype,10) not in (2,5,6) ) Then
       RAISE NOT_A_LINESTRING;
    End If;
    If ( p_point is null ) Then
       RAISE NULL_POINT;
    End If;
    If isCompound(p_geometry.sdo_elem_info) Then
       RAISE IS_COMPOUND;
    End If;
    v_dims := TRUNC;
    v_elem_info := p_geometry.sdo_elem_info;
    If ( p_position is NULL or p_position <= 0 ) Then
       v_ordinates := p_geometry.sdo_ordinates;
       ADD_Coordinate( v_ordinates, v_dims, p_point );
    Else
       — First insert the point at the right point in the ordinate array
       SELECT column_value
         BULK COLLECT INTO v_ordinates
         FROM (SELECT case when Ceil(rownum/v_dims) = p_position then (p_position+0.5) else Ceil(rownum/v_dims) end as coord,
                      rownum – (Ceil(rownum/v_dims) – 1) * v_dims as ord,
                      a.column_value
                 FROM TABLE a
               UNION ALL
               SELECT p_position as coord,
                      rownum as ord,
                      v.column_value
                 FROM TABLE) v
                WHERE rownum <= v_dims
             )
       ORDER BY coord,ord;
       — Now, modify sdo_elem_info if needed
       If ( GetNumElem(p_geometry) > 1 ) Then
         SELECT case when e.elem = 1
                      and ( e.elem_value > 1 And e.elem_value > e.new_ord_position )
                     then e.elem_value + v_dims
                     when e.elem = 3
                     then /* If this is a multi-point geometry, add one to the point count in interpretation field*/
                          case when (LAG over (order by e.rin)) = 1
                               then e.elem_value + 1
                               else e.elem_value
                           end
                     else e.elem_value
                 end as new_elem_value
           BULK COLLECT INTO v_elem_info
           FROM (SELECT rownum                            as rin,
                        (( p_position – 1 ) * v_dims) + 1 as new_ord_position,
                        rownum – (Ceil(rownum/3) – 1) * 3 as elem,
                        a.column_value                    as elem_value
                   FROM TABLE a
                 ) e;
       End If;
    End If;
    Return MDSYS.SDO_Geometry(p_geometry.sdo_gtype,
                              p_geometry.sdo_srid,
                              p_geometry.sdo_point,
                              v_elem_info,
                              v_ordinates);
    EXCEPTION
      WHEN NULL_GEOMETRY Then
        raise_application_error(CODESYS.CONSTANTS.c_i_null_geometry,
                                CODESYS.CONSTANTS.c_s_null_geometry,TRUE);
        RETURN p_geometry;
      WHEN NOT_A_LINESTRING THEN
       raise_application_error(CODESYS.CONSTANTS.c_i_not_line,CODESYS.CONSTANTS.c_s_not_line,true);
       RETURN p_geometry;
      WHEN IS_COMPOUND THEN
       raise_application_error(CODESYS.CONSTANTS.c_i_cmpnd_vector,CODESYS.CONSTANTS.c_s_cmpnd_vector,true);
       RETURN p_geometry;
      WHEN NULL_POINT THEN
       raise_application_error(-20001,‘p_point is null’,true);
       RETURN p_geometry;
  End SDO_AddPoint;
/* ST_* Wrappers */ Function ST_AddPoint(p_geometry IN MDSYS.ST_Geometry, p_point IN MDSYS.ST_Point, p_position IN Number ) Return MDSYS.ST_Geometry Is Begin Return MDSYS.ST_GEOMETRY.FROM_SDO_GEOM( CODESYS.GEOM.SDO_AddPoint(p_geometry.Get_Sdo_Geom(), mdsys.vertex_type(p_point.ST_X(), p_point.ST_Y(), NULL, /* p_point.ST_Z() */ NULL, /* p_point.ST_M() */ null), p_position));

End ST_AddPoint;

Note that the IBM and PostGIS function support linestrings only. The functions above support MultiPoint, LineString and MultiLineStrings. The functions do not, as yet, support Polygons, MultiPolygons or geometries with compound elements. I could, of course, modify them to allow for the handling of non-linear geometries, but I have chosen not to in version 1.0. If a user finds the functions useful and wants support for such things then contact me and I will update them.

On to the examples of how to use the functions.

-- Test update of SDO_POINT structure with valid ordinate values
select geom.SDO_AddPoint(mdsys.SDO_Geometry(2001,null,sdo_point_type(1.12345,2.43534,3.43513),null,null),
                               mdsys.vertex_type(4.555,4.666,10,null,1),
                               1) as point
  from dual;

Error starting at line 1 in command:
select geom.SDO_AddPoint(mdsys.SDO_Geometry(2001,null,sdo_point_type(1.12345,2.43534,3.43513),null,null),
                               mdsys.vertex_type(4.555,4.666,10,null,1),
                               1) as point
  from dual
Error report:
SQL Error: ORA-20116: Input geometry is not a linestring
ORA-06512: at "CODESYS.GEOM", line 4459
ORA-06510: PL/SQL: unhandled user-defined exception

select Geom.SDO_AddPoint(Geom.SDO_SetPoint(b.the_geom,b.the_point,1),b.the_point,NULL) 
         as setGeom
  from (select sdo_geometry('POLYGON((2 2, 2 7, 12 7, 12 2, 2 2))',NULL) as the_geom,
               mdsys.vertex_type(1,1,null,null,1) as the_point
         from dual
       ) b;

Error starting at line 6 in command:
select Geom.SDO_AddPoint(Geom.SDO_SetPoint(b.the_geom,b.the_point,1),b.the_point,NULL) 
         as setGeom
  from (select sdo_geometry('POLYGON((2 2, 2 7, 12 7, 12 2, 2 2))',NULL) as the_geom,
               mdsys.vertex_type(1,1,null,null,1) as the_point
         from dual
       ) b
Error report:
SQL Error: ORA-20116: Input geometry is not a linestring
ORA-06512: at "CODESYS.GEOM", line 4459
ORA-06510: PL/SQL: unhandled user-defined exception

-- Add before first point in 2D multipoint
select geom.SDO_SetPoint(mdsys.SDO_Geometry(2005,null,null,
                               sdo_elem_info_array(1,1,3),
                               sdo_ordinate_array(1.1,1.3,2.0,2.1,3.4,3.5)),
                               mdsys.vertex_type(-1.0,-1.1,null,null,1),
                               1) as point
  from dual;

POINT
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY(2005,null,null,MDSYS.SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1,3),MDSYS.SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(-1,-1.1,2,2.1,3.4,3.5))

1 rows selected

-- Add point at end of MultiPoint
select geom.SDO_AddPoint(mdsys.SDO_Geometry(2005,null,null,sdo_elem_info_array(1,1,3),
                               sdo_ordinate_array(1.1,1.3,2.4,2.03,3.4,3.5)),
                               mdsys.vertex_type(4.5,4.6,null,null,1),
                               null/* Means append to end of coordinates */) as point
  from dual;

POINT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY(2005,null,null,MDSYS.SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,1,3),MDSYS.SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(1.1,1.3,2.4,2.03,3.4,3.5,4.5,4.6))

1 rows selected

-- Test a linestring with the ST_AddPoint version
SELECT GEOM.ST_ADDPoint(a.linestring,a.point,null/*Will append at the end of the linestring*/).Get_WKT() as st_geom
  FROM (SELECT mdsys.OGC_LineStringFromText('LINESTRING(1.12345 1.3445,2.43534 2.03998398,3.43513 3.451245)') as linestring,
               mdsys.OGC_PointFromText('POINT(4.555 4.666)') as point
          FROM dual) a;

ST_GEOM
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LINESTRING (1.12345 1.3445, 2.43534 2.03998398, 3.43513 3.451245, 4.555 4.666)

1 rows selected

-- Finally test a multilinestring 
-- Insert in position 1
SELECT GEOM.ST_AddPoint(a.multilinestring,a.point,1).Get_WKT() as st_geom
  FROM (SELECT mdsys.OGC_MultiLineStringFromText('MULTILINESTRING ((1.12345 1.3445, 2.43534 2.03998398, 3.43513 3.451245), (10.0 10.0, 10.0 20.0))') as multilinestring,
               mdsys.OGC_PointFromText('POINT(-1 -1)') as point
          FROM dual) a;

ST_GEOM
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MULTILINESTRING ((-1.0 -1.0, 1.12345 1.3445, 2.43534 2.03998398, 3.43513 3.451245), (10.0 10.0, 10.0 20.0))

1 rows selected

-- Insert in position 4 (ie first coordinate of second linestring
SELECT GEOM.ST_AddPoint(a.multilinestring,a.point,4).Get_WKT() as st_geom
  FROM (SELECT mdsys.OGC_MultiLineStringFromText('MULTILINESTRING ((1.12345 1.3445, 2.43534 2.03998398, 3.43513 3.451245), (10.0 10.0, 10.0 20.0))') as multilinestring,
               mdsys.OGC_PointFromText('POINT(4.555 4.666)') as point
          FROM dual) a;

ST_GEOM
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MULTILINESTRING ((1.12345 1.3445, 2.43534 2.03998398, 3.43513 3.451245), (4.555 4.666, 10.0 10.0, 10.0 20.0))

1 rows selected

-- Insert at end of second linestring
SELECT GEOM.ST_AddPoint(a.multilinestring,a.point,null).Get_WKT() as st_geom
  FROM (SELECT mdsys.OGC_MultiLineStringFromText('MULTILINESTRING ((1.12345 1.3445, 2.43534 2.03998398, 3.43513 3.451245), (10.0 10.0, 10.0 20.0))') as multilinestring,
               mdsys.OGC_PointFromText('POINT(30 30)') as point
          FROM dual) a;

ST_GEOM
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MULTILINESTRING ((1.12345 1.3445, 2.43534 2.03998398, 3.43513 3.451245), (10.0 10.0, 10.0 20.0, 30.0 30.0))

1 rows selected

I hope this article is of help to someone.

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