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Current Oracle Spatial Blog Articles

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    Changing all DIMINFO sdo_tolerance values for all metadata records in one go.
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    Computing Cardinal Directions to nearby geometries
    Intersecting two aggregated polygon layers with SC4O
    Spatial and Oracle 12c
    Update Triggers and SDO_GEOMETRY Equality
    Duplicate Geometry data and Data Models
    CENTROID package update
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    Sorting SDO_GEOMETRY data using the ORDER BY clause of a SELECT statement
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    Rounding Coordinates or Ordinates in SDO_GEOMETRY
    Effects of Sdo_Geometry Ordinate Precision on Performance
    Effects of Sdo_Geometry Ordinate Precision on Storage
    The Spatial filtering of geometries: The effect of tolerances on relationships
    Application of Delaunay Triangulation and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) in Oracle for Soils Interpolation
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    Oracle Spatial Forum - Melbourne April 2007
    Layer_GTypes for spatial indexes
    Oracle's SQL/MM Compliant Types
    Tips and Tricks



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All Blog Articles, Data Models and Free Source Code by Simon Greener, The SpatialDB Advisor is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

The Spatial filtering of geometries: The effect of tolerances on relationships

Sunday April 01 2012 at 07:45

Keywordssdo_anyinteract sdo_geom.relate filter tolerance different results relationships

This article puts some “flesh” on Bryan Hall’s article on Otn “Note on spatial relationships and tolerance” by providing a worked example of the effect that coarse and fine tolerances has on spatial filtering.

The knowledgeable Bryan Hall made a post over on the Oracle Technology Network’s Oracle Spatial Forum reminding users of the “hidden” issues that inform the way Oracle compare’s two geometries when using a secondary filter

Here is the relevant section of the post.

With relationship operators such as sdo_anyinteract that take two parameters for the spatial columns to use for the test. The first must be indexed (a real table), and the second can be indexed, or just a passed or created spatial object. In my cases, both are always indexed, and most spatial items have a very tight tolerance. But for one object, instead of the 0.001 meter tolerance, it had a 0.1 meter tolerance. I didn’t realize that – until I ran the query both ways (using the ORDERED hint) to see which would be quicker for the script – and then came back with a different number of results.

The difference was the order of use in sdo_anyinteract. If the first item listed has a wider tolerance, more results are returned as it is more inclusive. However, if the order is reversed, the more restrictive tolerance is used and you get fewer results.

Let’s look at this in detail.

Some data

  1. -- Rect1
  2. DROP   TABLE rect1;
  3. CREATE TABLE rect1 ( id   INTEGER, geom mdsys.sdo_geometry);
  4. INSERT INTO rect1 (ID,GEOM) VALUES (1,mdsys.sdo_geometry(2003,NULL,NULL,mdsys.sdo_elem_info_array(1,1003,3),mdsys.sdo_ordinate_array(1,1,10,10))); COMMIT;
  5. DELETE FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'RECT1' AND column_name = 'GEOM'; COMMIT;
  6. INSERT INTO user_sdo_geom_metadata (TABLE_NAME,column_name,srid,diminfo) VALUES ('RECT1','GEOM',NULL,mdsys.sdo_dim_array(mdsys.sdo_dim_element('X',0,11,0.05),mdsys.sdo_dim_element('Y',0,11,0.05))); COMMIT;
  7. CREATE INDEX rect1_geom_spdx ON rect1(geom) INDEXTYPE IS mdsys.spatial_index PARAMETERS('sdo_indx_dims=2, layer_gtype=POLYGON');
  8. -- Rect2
  9. DROP   TABLE rect2;
  10. CREATE TABLE rect2 ( id   INTEGER, geom mdsys.sdo_geometry);
  11. INSERT INTO rect2 (ID,GEOM) VALUES (1,mdsys.sdo_geometry(2003,NULL,NULL,mdsys.sdo_elem_info_array(1,1003,3),mdsys.sdo_ordinate_array(10.01,10.01,20,20))); COMMIT;
  12. DELETE FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'RECT2' AND column_name = 'GEOM'; COMMIT;
  13. INSERT INTO user_sdo_geom_metadata (TABLE_NAME,column_name,srid,diminfo) VALUES ('RECT2','GEOM',NULL,mdsys.sdo_dim_array(mdsys.sdo_dim_element('X',10,21,0.0005),mdsys.sdo_dim_element('Y',10,21,0.0005))); COMMIT;
  14. CREATE INDEX rect2 ON rect2(geom) INDEXTYPE IS mdsys.spatial_index PARAMETERS('sdo_indx_dims=2, layer_gtype=POLYGON');

Note that a tolerance of 0.05 is the same as 0.1 and 0.0005 the same as 0.001.

Relationship Operators/Functions and Parameters

Firstly, let’s use a relationship function that takes a tolerance input to show the differences when the tables have two different tolerances.

  1. SELECT SDO_GEOM.RELATE(a.geom,'DETERMINE',b.geom,0.5  /* rect1 tolerance */) AS u1relate,
  2.        SDO_GEOM.RELATE(a.geom,'DETERMINE',b.geom,0.005/* rect2 tolerance */) AS u2relate
  3.   FROM rect1 a,
  4.        rect2 b,
  5.        user_sdo_geom_metadata u1,
  6.        user_sdo_geom_metadata u2
  7.  WHERE ( u1.TABLE_NAME = 'RECT1' AND u1.column_name = 'GEOM' )
  8.    AND ( u2.TABLE_NAME = 'RECT1' AND u2.column_name = 'GEOM' );

Notice that at the coarser RECT1 tolerance of 0.5 the objects touch – which is correct.
But at the finer RECT2 tolerance of 0.005 the objects are disjoint – which is also correct.

So, now what happens if we search as per Bryan’s posting?

Firstly, searching for the RECT2’s geometry which has the finer tolerance:

  2.        a.id, b.id
  3.   FROM rect1 a,
  4.        rect2 b
  5.  WHERE SDO_RELATE(b.geom,a.geom,'mask=anyinteract') = 'TRUE';
  6. -- Results

And the reverse, searching for RECT1’s geometry which has the coarser tolerance:

  2.        a.id, b.id
  3.   FROM rect2 b,
  4.        rect1 a
  5.  WHERE SDO_RELATE(a.geom,b.geom,'mask=anyinteract') = 'TRUE';
  6. -- Result
  7. ID ID                    
  8. -- --
  9. 1  1

That is, they have an interaction (ie TOUCH).

Assuming that these Oracle secondary filter functions use SDO_GEOM.RELATE to compare two geometries then we seem to have duplicated Bryan’s problem.

Now, let’s repeat this test using one of the “wrapper” secondary filters.

  2.        a.id, b.id
  3.   FROM rect1 a,
  4.        rect2 b
  5.  WHERE SDO_ANYINTERACT(b.geom,a.geom) = 'TRUE';
  6. -- Results

And the reverse:

  2.        a.id, b.id
  3.   FROM rect2 b,
  4.        rect1 a
  5.  WHERE SDO_TOUCH(a.geom,b.geom) = 'TRUE';
  6. -- Result
  7. ID ID                    
  8. -- --
  9. 1  1

Which is as expected.

Trouble at Mill

However, SDO_GEOM.RELATE does not perform as expected when on uses the version of
the function with two diminfo parameters:

  1. SELECT SDO_GEOM.RELATE(a.geom,u1.diminfo,'DETERMINE',b.geom,u1.diminfo) AS u11relate,
  2.        SDO_GEOM.RELATE(a.geom,u1.diminfo,'DETERMINE',b.geom,u2.diminfo) AS u12relate,
  3.        SDO_GEOM.RELATE(a.geom,u2.diminfo,'DETERMINE',b.geom,u1.diminfo) AS u21relate,
  4.        SDO_GEOM.RELATE(a.geom,u2.diminfo,'DETERMINE',b.geom,u2.diminfo) AS u22relate
  5.   FROM rect1 a,
  6.        rect2 b,
  7.        user_sdo_geom_metadata u1,
  8.        user_sdo_geom_metadata u2
  9.  WHERE ( u1.TABLE_NAME = 'RECT1' AND u1.column_name = 'GEOM' )
  10.    AND ( u2.TABLE_NAME = 'RECT2' AND u2.column_name = 'GEOM' );
  11. -- Results
  13. --------- --------- --------- ---------
  14. TOUCH     TOUCH     TOUCH     TOUCH

Caveat Emptor! (Latin for “Let the buyer beware”)

Hope this helps someone.

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Comment [5]

There is an error in the SQL statement for “Trouble at Mill” which could explain the problem. The last line of the SQL should use the table_name RECT2 instead of RECT1,
i.e., AND ( u2.TABLE_NAME = ‘RECT2’ AND u2.column_name = ‘GEOM’ );


Martin Gans 28 June 2012, 07:57 #

Ahhh, missed that.
Well done for “paying attention”!
Thanks, I will fix it.

Simon Greener 28 June 2012, 08:38 #

How to select all records from a table with oriented point geometries, where Z <> 0
So something like
select p.geometry from points p where p.geometry.Z <> 0.

Example matching record :
select SDO_GEOMETRY(3001, 31370, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 1, 4, 1, 0), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(155395.5199, 121789.6388, -2.33269509664069E-5, 1, 0, 0)) from dual

Example not matching record :
select SDO_GEOMETRY(3001, 31370, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 1, 4, 1, 0), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(155395.5199, 121789.6388, 0, 1, 0, 0)) from dual

Ivan 21 October 2016, 01:40 #

There is a function in my GEOM package called isOrientedPoint that returns 0 if false and 1 if true. Can be used as follows:

with example as (
select SDO_GEOMETRY(3001, 31370, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 1), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(155395.5199, 121789.6388, -0.00000233269509664)) as oPoint from dual
union all
select SDO_GEOMETRY(3001, 31370, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 1, 4, 1, 0), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(155395.5199, 121789.6388, -0.00000233269509664, 1, 0, 0)) as oPoint from dual
union all
select SDO_GEOMETRY(3001, 31370, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 1, 4, 1, 0), SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(155395.5199, 121789.6388, 0, 1, 0, 0)) from dual
select geom.IsOrientedPoint(a.oPoint.sdo_elem_info) as isOriented
from example a;

I hope this is of use.


Simon Greener 22 October 2016, 16:17 #

Hello Simon,
On Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release – 64bit Production, with parameter spatial_vector_acceleration = TRUE, the last query returns:


Flavio C. 13 March 2018, 20:32 #